The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu that means camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with one another and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually advanced into present day Urdu. It’s for this reason that Urdu can also be referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.
Throughout its development Urdu language additionally assumed varied names like the term Urdu-e-Maullah which means the exalted military which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the term Rekhta that means scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.
History and Evolution of Urdu Language
Evolution and development of any language depends on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Numerous invasions and conquests on a place have an effect on the development of its language. Urdu is no exception as it also underwent varied stages of development.
Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The time period Prakrriti means root or basis. It’s a later version of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language started to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.
With the coming of Insha’s Darya-e-Latafat*, a necessity was felt to differentiate Urdu with other languages especially Hindi. It turned a Hindi-Urdu controversy and as a result Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words replaced with Sanskrit served the purpose of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.
Urdu emerged as a definite language after 1193 AD – the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. As a result of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders – which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language evolved which later grew to become Urdu. Through the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the end of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had turn into Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the coming of the British, new English words additionally grew to become part of the Urdu language. Many English words have been accepted in their real form while others had been accepted after some modifications.
Currently, Urdu vocabulary incorporates approximately 70% of Persian words and the rest are a combination of Arabic and Turkish words. Nonetheless, there are additionally traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. But these influences are little.
Urdu was taken to other parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the frequent people. On account of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the people of different speech and dialects, a mixed form of language formed called ‘Rekhta’ (Urdu and Persian in combined form). Soon folks started to make use of the new language of their speech and in literature which resulted within the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.
The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India in the course of the Mughal rule. Probably the most eminent earliest poets who made utilization of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who may be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was often used along side Persian. Mughal kings had been the good patrons of art and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of ‘Sheri Mehfils’ (poetic gatherings) within the kings’ courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana have been the well-known Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language through their literary works.
It is indeed true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the same language i.e. Prakrit, however where the Hindi took affect from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic model of writing and emerged as a separate language. However beside common ancestry, the 2 languages are as completely different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical differences in each languages.
Urdu was additionally used as a device by the Muslims for freedom battle and for making awareness amongst Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, providers of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal are notable, who by their poetry and prose provoked the necessary spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to turn out to be the nationwide language of Pakistan at the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the national language of Pakistan, spoken and understood totally by mainity of the population.
In case you cherished this post and you want to receive more details with regards to meaning in urdu i implore you to check out our webpage.